Fonofos is a pesticide that is commonly used in controlling insects from the soil, including wireworms, rootworms, and garden centipedes. Fonofos is sold under the trade name of Dyfonate, and the chemical name of Fonofos given by the Chemical Abstracts Service is O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate.
Fonofos is part of the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) which is under the control of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The CCL is a list that identifies common contaminants in the water, proposing them for regulation. The EPA will determine whether the levels are dangerous or not, using toxicity data provided by the CAS.
High quantities of fonofos in water may lead to a variety of health effects in humans and animals. When heated, Fonofos may also emit toxic fumes. Very small amounts of fonofos may not be too toxic for humans, but high amounts may lead to toxicity. The cost of Dyfonate is around $23,40 per 2 lbs, which may cover a wide soil surface.
Fonofos is classified as an organthiophosphate, part of the organophosphate category. With the formula C10H15OPS2 and a ChemSpider ID 13087, Fonofos is declared an insecticide. Fonofos has a solubility in water of 0.001% (20°C) and a boiling point of 266°F (130°C). Fonofos’ flashpoint is at 94° C/201° F/367° K, and its vapor pressure is 0.0002 mmHg (25°C).
Fonofos may be removed from the water by using a water filter. A water filter that complies with water quality standards will be able to safely remove Fonofos contamination.
What Is the Use of Fonofos?
The main use of Fonofos is as an insecticide for the soil. Fonofos is an advantageous choice for controlling pests such as cutworms, rootworms, wireworms, and garden centipedes. The main use is for worms that consume through the soil, but Fonofos can also be toxic to surface pests if consumed. The side use of Fonofos is as a fungicide, preventing fungi from growing within the soil.
Fonofos may enter the soil as a result of treating crops against pests. For this reason, a water filter is recommended. Water filters with smaller pore sizes such as ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis systems are recommended to remove Fonofos from the water.
What Are the Crops That Use Fonofos?
Fonofos is more commonly used in worm-based infestations, but direct contact with the pesticide will kill almost any insect. Fonofos is applied at rates between 1 to 4 pounds per acre, regardless of the plant. The quantity depends on the level of infestation. The more pests there are, the more Fonofos will be used per acre.
The crops that use Fonofos include the following:
- Sweet Potatoes
- Dry Beans
- Sweet Peppers
Fonofos is necessary for these crops, as the substance will keep an infestation at bay, killing worm-type pests. Other pesticides may also be used in order to prevent surface pests, such as aphids.
Fonofos is primarily used in corn crops. Pesticides common in corn include cutworms, wireworms, and rootworms. Due to its ability to kill these pests, Fonofos is commonly used in corn crops. Corn can be grown without using Fonofos, but proper maintenance needs to be conducted. The crops should be kept weed-free, and natural pesticides such as coffee grounds and diatomaceous earth may be used as well.
Potato crops often include wireworms, among other insects. These pests can significantly reduce the potato yield and compromise the plot. As a result, Fonofos is used to keep the situation under control. Natural options can be used to grow potatoes instead of Fonofos, such as diatomaceous earth and weed control.
Peanut plants frequently get pests such as armyworms, cutworms, cluster caterpillars, and false wireworms. As a result, Fonofos is used as a manner to prevent a pest infestation. Growing peanuts is also possible without Fonofos. Weed control is essential, and aluminum foil may also be placed around the seedling and into the ground. Cardboard collars can also be efficient.
Cutworms, hairy caterpillars, and root-lesion nematodes are frequent mint crop pests, among others. Fonofos is sprayed over the soil where the mint grows to prevent an infestation. Growth of mint is possible even without Fonofos. Spreading diatomaceous earth over the base of the mint plant can be a good alternative to using Fonofos.
Broccoli crops are prone to nematodes, cutworm, and leaf-eating caterpillar infestation. Fonofos is used on broccoli crop fields to keep the infestation to a minimum. Broccoli can grow without using Fonofos, but owners need to practice care. A natural pesticide may be made from 2 teaspoons of liquid detergent and one gallon of water. Water may also be replaced with two cups of vegetable oil.
6. Sweet Potatoes
Sweet potato crops are prone to the same infestations as the regular potato crop and more. Sweet potato crops may be affected by rootworms, cutworms, armyworms, hornworms, wireworms, and a variety of other soil insects. Fonofos is used on the surface of the soil to prevent the spread of these infestations. Sweet potatoes may be grown without Fonofos, but proper weeding is to be ensured. A good option to grow sweet potatoes would be to add diatomaceous earth over the soil and to install dry flour baits away from your crops.
7. Dry Beans
Western bean cutworms and seedcorn maggots are very common in pest infestations. The pests feed on the pods of the beans and can significantly affect the dry bean quality. As a result, Fonofos is often used to keep a pest infestation under control. Natural insecticides such as diatomaceous earth may be used to grow dry beans, along with proper weeding, if the use of Fonofos is not desired.
8. Sweet Peppers
Earwigs, fungus gnats, loopers, and caterpillars are very common on sweet pepper crops. Fonofos can work against insects and fungi, which is why it is commonly used on sweet pepper crops. Sweet pepper can be grown without Fonofos if organic pesticides are used. Weed the crops correctly, and spray them with a mix of soap and water. For underground crawlers, use diatomaceous earth.
What Are the Fonofos’ Effects on Health?
Fonofos can cause both short-term and long-term effects on health. Exposure to a high amount of Fonofos can lead to blurred vision, headache, nausea, sweating, or gastrointestinal problems. In severe cases, it can lead to convulsions and organophosphate poisoning. In the long term, Fonofos may also cause effects such as nerve weakness or liver damage.
What Is the Health Effect of Fonofos Within Water for Humans?
When the soil cannot filter the Fonofos completely, it ends up in the water. Fonofos’ presence in high concentrations can lead to a variety of side effects in humans, including acute intoxication, excessive salivation, nausea, sweating, vomiting, muscle twitching, and decreased blood pressure. In severe cases, Fonofos can lead to bronchial secretions and cardiorespiratory alert, which can eventually result in death.
What Is the Health Effect of Fonofos Within Water for Animals?
Clinical studies suggest that Fonofos in water can have a toxic effect on animals. Animals exposed to Fonofos may exhibit symptoms that are specific to cholinesterase inhibitors. These symptoms can include excessive salivation, tremors, diarrhea, and labored breathing.
What Is the Toxicity Level of Fonofos in Drinking Water?
The toxicity level of Fonofos in drinking water depends on the area from which the water sample was collected. In agricultural lands, the maximum concentration of Fonofos is 1.20 µg/L. This means that the detection frequency of Fonofos in the water is 3.05%.
In mixed areas, the maximum concentration of Fonofos reaches 0.014 µg/L, which means a 1.20% detection frequency. Urban areas have the smallest concentration of Fonofos in the water, at least in developed areas. The concentration of Fonofos in urban water is at 0.084 µg/L, meaning it has an average of 0.92% toxicity.
In underdeveloped areas, meaning the remote areas where the human population is low or nonexistent, there is little to no Fonofos presence in the water. Most water samples taken from underdeveloped areas suggest that the toxicity level in the water is near 0%. Even if a small number of houses were present, it was not enough to contaminate the water.
Do Water Filters Clean the Fonofos From Water?
Yes, water filters can clean Fonofos from the water. Sediment water filters may not be able to remove Fonofos, but filters with a smaller pore size can eliminate Fonofos from the water. Ultrafiltration systems are efficient when it comes to removing Fonofos from the water, but reverse osmosis systems have a smaller pore size. Reverse osmosis filters are more likely to capture the Fonofos particles and clear the water. By understanding how water filters work, people can choose the appropriate water filtering system.
Is It Healthy to Filter the Fonofos from Drinking Water?
Yes, it is healthy and even recommended to remove Fonofos from the water. Exposure to Fonofos may lead to a variety of side effects, so removing Fonofos from the water will prevent that exposure from happening in the first place. If a reverse osmosis system is used to remove the Fonofos from the water, it is recommended that a mineral bed filter is included as well. This will add the healthy minerals back in the water, as they will be removed during the reverse osmosis process.
What Are the Harms of High Fonofos Levels in Water?
The toxicological effects of high Fonofos in water include the following:
- Acute Toxicity: High amounts of Fonofos may be very toxic in the long run if ingested orally. Exposure to large amounts may lead to sweating, nausea, muscle twitching, and respiratory arrest. High-level Fonofos exposure may also lead to pancreatic cysts, although these situations are rare. This is a common reaction when it comes to contaminants of organophosphate nature (pesticides).
- Chronic Toxicity: High levels of Fonofos in water may also lead to chronic toxicity. The symptoms are similar to those of acute toxicity, but they occur with a delay. Someone with chronic Fonofos toxicity may experience multiple episodes of illness over an extended period. These symptoms are associated with other pesticides in water if ingested in high amounts.
- Organ Toxicity: Fonofos in high amounts may lead to organ toxicity. Fonofos can affect the respiratory system, the eyes, and the central nervous system. Fonofos is easily absorbed by the body, which means the symptoms of the exposure may occur very fast.
Is Fonofos Included Within the Definition of Water Pollution?
Water pollution happens when a substance that is considered harmful (i.e., a microorganism or a chemical) enters the water and contaminates it. The pollution is often a result of human activities, with the contaminants seeping into the earth and the aquifers or streams.
Fonofos is a human-applied pesticide that can be harmful to humans and animals alike. It is frequently present in the water, mainly in agricultural areas. As a result, Fonofos is included within the definition of water pollution.
Is Fonofos in Water a Contaminant?
Yes, Fonofos is a contaminant in the water according to the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). A contaminant is an any physical, biological, chemical, or radiological substance that is present in the water but is not part of the water formula. This includes both unhealthy and healthy contaminants, from pesticides to magnesium and calcium. Fonofos is a pesticide that is not part of the water formula – therefore, it is a contaminant.